ms and civilizations. The role of rice as the underpinning of social structures in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia is acknowledged by many ways by the people who live there. The ancient buildings of Cambodia document rice production in their reliefs.
Cultural Changes: The domestication of water buffalo and the development of irrigation systems. Farmers were allowed to extend the area of land they could cultivate and the time during the year that they could grow crops.
Technological Changes: Almost 80% of agricultural land of Laos is taken up with intensive rice cultivation, making it the centre of life for most of the population. In Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, there is a rain-fed technique where areas of forests in uplands are cleared and farmed for several years before the farmers shift to a new location. Fertile volcanic soils and the "green revolution" of high yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers and pesticides and irrigation have led to becoming a major rice growing area.